Lexham Methods Series: Textual Criticism

Series Overview

Logos is release a series a 4 book series titled the “Lexham Methods Series” published by Lexham Press. It will be a digital resource available through logos.com. It consists of four works, including:

  • Textual Criticism of the Bible
  • Linguistics and Biblical Exegesis
  • Social & Historical Approaches to the the Bible
  • Literary Approaches to the Bible

The purpose of these volumes is to enable the reader to “learn, refresh or master the tools of Biblical scholarship” and be “equipped to share the material with others.” I was kindly sent an advanced copy of volume one of this series and would like to briefly summarize and interact with it here.

Summary of Textual Criticism and the Bible

This volume begins with a brief introduction defining textual criticism (TC) and differentiating this discipline with translation technique. TC is simply defined as “exercising judgment about a text to determine the most original wording.” This definition will be further qualified and unpacked in the remaining chapters.

In Chapter 2, “An Overview of Textual Criticism, contains discussions of both Old and New Testament TC, including the present state of the manuscripts as well as how textual variants have appeared. It explains why TC is important, the goal of TC, its basic principles, and its limitations.

In Chapters 3, “Introduction to Old Testament Textual Criticism” the author introduces the history of Old Testament TC, the textual evidence available for doing TC of the Old Testament, as well as a practical section on how to do Old Testament textual criticism, which includes tools and specific examples. This same pattern is followed in chapter 4, “Introduction to New Testament Textual Criticism.”

Finally, in chapter 5, “Textual Criticism and the Bible” the author lists several popular translations of the Bible and explains each one’s text-critical approach. It also includes a brief discussion on how TC impacts our understanding of the authority of Scripture.

My Thoughts on the Volume


First, I am a huge fan of how this volume is organized. It is easy to read through in a few sittings or to use as a reference guide. The table of contest is easily navigated and labeled so that it is easy to find the subject matter you might be looking for. Also, throughout the work many important words and concepts have linked definitions, and links to other helpful resources. Each major section also contains an annotated bibliography for further study, which guides one into further study if desired.


This volume is perhaps one of the most thorough yet accessible introductions to Textual Criticism available. It for the most part finds a good balance between scholarly treatment of the issues, yet accessibility to the average reader. For example, the introductions to both Old and New Testament Textual Criticism include a section on its history and key figures. While each of these topics is massive, this volume seems to hit the most important points without bogging the reader down with details.

The same is true with these sections’ discussions of textual evidence. This work hits the major textual witnesses with brief yet informative descriptions of each. With regard to the OT, it covers the Masoretic Text, the Septuagint, the Dead Sea Scrolls, and other less significant but still valuable witnesses, including the Samarian Pentateuch and translations from Hebrew into Syriac, Aramaic and Latin. As someone not all that familiar with Old Testament textual criticism, after reading through this work I feel much more competent to address the issue and study it in more depth.

The discussion of the New Testament witnesses is excellent and covers the papyri, uncials, minuscules and lectionaries, with discussions of the most important witnesses in each. There are also brief discussion of the modern critical editions, early translations and citation in the church fathers.

Finally, the sections on both Old and New Testament TC have sub-sections on how to do textual criticism. These sections themselves are reason enough to get the volume. There is an overview of the principles and a step by step guide to the process using specific textual problems from the Biblical text.


The Lexham Methods series looks to be a valuable tool for for students, pastors and laypeople alike. Whether seeking to refresh or learn the valuable tools contained in it’s pages, the organization and content provide an accessible way to delve deeply into the topic.

Volume one, Textual Criticism of the Bible, is more than an introduction to the topic. While it does not provide an exhaustive discussion of TC, it does delve deeply into the issues involved and provides avenues for further in depth study. I am in the process of preparing for my comprehensive exams as a PhD student and this work has certainly provided more than enough information on textual criticism should that question arise! But more important than the impartation of information, which the book does very well, is the fact that it makes TC accessible so that anyone can read it and be strengthened in their confidence in the reliability of God’s Word.

Update: A print version of this series is also forthcoming and will be made available through Amazon.


Happy 500th to the 1st Printed Greek New Testament!


This year marks the 500th anniversary of the first printed Greek New Testament (January 10, 1514). While the honor for the first published Greek New Testament is rightly awarded to Erasmus’ 1516 edition, the first GNT was actually printed a year before that. Erasmus learned of the recent printing of this title, and so rushed to get his edition of the GNT to the publisher so as to be the first. While he did succeed, because of the rush his first edition is often considered to have the most errors of any volume ever published!

The full title of this rival to Erasmus was Novum Testamentum Graece et Latine in Academia Complutensi Nouiter Impressum. It was part of a “polyglot” edition of the Bible, which means the text appeared in several different languages. This polyglot became known as the Complutensian Polyglot.


Published in six volumes, the Complutensian was the first of its kind. Volumes 1–4 contain the Old Testament in 3 parallel columns: Hebrew, the Latin Vulgate, and the Greek Septuagint. The Pentateuch also contained columns for the Aramaic text and its own Latin translation. The Greek New Testament was included in its fifth volume, and consisted of the GNT and the Vulgate in parallel columns. The first Greek dictionary, along with various other study aids, composed volume six.


Hebrew, Greek and Latin

So What?

A work of this import and magnitude should not be overlooked. With the development of the printing press, the Bible could be much more accurately copied and widely distributed. It was commissioned by the cardinal primate of Spain, Francisco Ximenes de Cisneros.It was the first printed polyglot of the entire Bible, and thus contained the first printed edition of the Greek New Testament. It also contained the first Greek glossary of the New Testament, which would then be followed by countless others. Cardinal Francisco’s reason for embarking on this project is worth quoting:

“… the most learned translator can present only a part of this, the full Scripture in translation inevitably remains up to the present time laden with a variety of sublime truths which cannot be understood from any source other than the original language. Moreover, wherever there is diversity in the Latin manuscripts or the suspicion of a corrupted reading (we know how frequently this occurs because of the ignorance and negligence of copyists), it is necessary to go back to the original source of Scripture … to examine the authenticity of the books of the Old Testament in the light of the correctness of the Hebrew text and of the New Testament in the light of the Greek copies. And so that every student of Holy Scripture might have at hand the original texts themselves and be able to quench his thirst at the very fountainhead of the water that flows unto life everlasting and not have to content himself with rivulets alone, we ordered the original languages of Holy Scripture with their translations adjoined to be printed.”

His desire was to “to revive the languishing study of the ancient Scriptures.”

This is indeed a worthy goal, and a need that has not waned. We do not read the Bible in a vacuum, but we are indepted to those who have through much hard and diligent work completed tremendous tasks from which we reap the benefits. The Complutensian Polyglot is most certainly one that deserves to be recognized among them.

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What is Textual Criticism and Why It Matters: Intro

What is Textual Criticism and Why It Matters

Imagine if I wrote a 15 page letter and gave it to you to copy by hand. Let’s say you, in turn, gave it to two other people and they copied. Say each of them gave it to several people and they copied it. Say this continued for 1000 years, and my original, as well as the almost all of the copies up to 200 years were lost. What would you have? What you would have is something similar to what we have with the New Testament. This is what makes textual criticism necessary.

This illustrates what the process of copying would have looked like

This illustrates what the process of copying would have looked like

Textual Criticism is not a term most Christians are familiar with. Yet, without it we would not have Christianity. Yes, it is that important. So, in the next several posts I am going to try to introduce this important topic and then give some examples as to how the actual work is done. We’ll start with some definitions:

These should get us started for now. With each post we’ll add a few more definitions as we delve deeper into the discussion.


An Autograph refers to the original copy of a manuscript written by the actual author of that manuscript.

So for example, the autograph of 1 Corinthians would be the copy that Paul actually wrote (or dictated). We have no autographs from any ancient literary document. They remain either undiscovered or they no longer exist.


A Manuscript is any piece of an ancient document.

P52 The oldest NT manuscript we possess


The New Testament is the most well attested ancient document by far when it comes to the number of ancient manuscripts we have available
to examine. We have around 5,500 Greek manuscripts alone, and when you add in ancient translations into Latin, Syriac, Coptic, Armenian, etc. the number rises to at least 20,000. Of these manuscripts we have around 124 which were copied within 300 years of the original, a dozen

P52 The oldest NT manuscript we possess

of these being from the second century. If you compare this to any other classical writing, what you’ll find is that no other ancient copy of any literary text exists within 300 years of the original. Not one. And the manuscripts we do have containing copies of

those writings total to about 20 on average, often less. In other words, we can be infinitely more confident that we can trace the NT text back to the original than any other work of antiquity.

Document Date of Originals Earliest MSS  Number of MSS
New Testament 5-100 AD 65-150 AD 5600+; thousands of quotes from Fathers; 8000 versions
Illiad ca. 800 BC ca 400 BC 643
Plato (Collected Works ca. 400 BC ca. 900 AD 7
Tacitus ca. 100 AD 1100 AD 20
Euripides 480-406 BC 1100 AD 330

Textual Variant

Textual Variant is a place in the Biblical text where there exists variation of any kind in the manuscript tradition.1

Perhaps the best way to illustrate this is to point you to is to show you:

Textual Criticism at work

Textual Criticism at work

In the KJV you find the words

“For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one…”

However, the most other modern translation, the portion of the text is omitted. Why? This has to do with textual criticism, and we’ll look more closely at this particular text in a future post.

Textual Apparatus

The textual apparatus refers to a section at the bottom of a page of the biblical text, which indicates the various variant readings in the above text.

Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament

This is the most widely utilized version of the Greek Text. It contains a textual apparatus at the bottom of each page of text detailing the major variants within that portion of text. It is typically the starting point for all of our modern translations.

Textual Criticism

This refers to the practice examining and comparing ancient manuscripts so as to discover what was written by the original author.

So with some basic definitions, in further posts we’ll continue to discuss what TC actually looks like and why it is vital to how we read the Bible.

1. [Dan Wallace defines a textual variant as: “any place among the manuscripts in which there is variation in wording, including word order, omission or addition of words, even spelling differences…”; Stewart, Robert B., ed. the Textual Reliability of the New Testament: Bart D. Erhman and Daniel B. Wallace in Dialogue, (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2011), 32.]